The quality of teaching and learning in higher education is under enormous scrutiny. For example, in England there is to be a new Teaching Excellence Framework.

In this revised version of the 12th HEPI Annual Lecture, which was originally delivered in December 2015, Andreas Schleicher of the OECD makes a powerful case for directly measuring the learning gain of students on a comparable basis across the world for the first time.

While recognising the technical challenges involved, the lecture argues this is now possible and, because the proxies for learning gain have such big problems, there is no substitute for starting to measure it directly.